Technical SEO

Posted on February 9, 2023 at 12:00 am

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In today’s digital age, it is not enough to simply have a website. With millions of websites available at our fingertips, it is crucial to ensure that our website stands out from the competition and reaches its target audience. This is where SEO comes in - through optimizing your website for search engines, you can increase its visibility and attract more traffic.

However, SEO is not just about using relevant keywords and optimizing content. There is a side of SEO that is often overlooked - technical SEO. Technical SEO is the foundation upon which your website’s SEO is built. It is a crucial aspect of the optimization process that can make or break your website’s performance.

In this comprehensive guide, we will take a deep dive into the world of technical SEO, exploring key topics such as crawling and indexing, site architecture and internal linking, website speed and performance, mobile optimization, schema markup, XML sitemaps and robots.txt, canonicalization, HTTPS and SSL, and server and hosting issues. Each section will discuss why these elements are important to technical SEO, provide practical examples, and offer instructions on how to optimize your website for these areas.

By the end of this guide, you will have a solid understanding of technical SEO, and the tools and strategies needed to maximize your website’s performance. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced SEO professional, this guide will equip you with the knowledge you need to succeed in today’s digital landscape. So, let’s dive in!

Crawling and Indexing

One of the first steps to achieving a successful SEO strategy is ensuring that your website is properly crawled and indexed by search engines. Crawling involves search engines sending bots, also known as spiders or crawlers, to scan and collect information about your website's pages and content. Indexing involves search engines adding this information to their database, in order to display relevant results when users search for keywords or phrases.

It is important to understand that search engine bots have limited resources and time to crawl and index your website. Therefore, you need to prioritize what content and pages are most important for search engines to crawl and index.

There are several ways to help ensure that your website is optimally crawled and indexed. Here are some tips:

1. Create a sitemap

A sitemap is a file that lists all the pages on your website, making it easier for search engines to crawl and find your content. You can automatically generate a sitemap using tools such as XML Sitemap Generator or Yoast SEO Plugin.

2. Focus on site architecture

A clear and organized site architecture can make it easier for search engines to crawl and index your website. Properly categorize your content, use descriptive URLs, and avoid excessive use of dynamic parameters. Additionally, limit the number of clicks it takes for users to reach all pages on your site.

3. Optimize your robots.txt file

Your website's robots.txt file gives search engines instructions on what pages or files to exclude from crawling. While it's important to avoid blocking important pages, you also want to avoid letting search engines crawl unnecessary or duplicate content, as this can negatively affect your site's ranking.

4. Use internal linking

By linking to other pages within your website, you not only provide a helpful navigation system for users, but you also help search engines better understand and crawl your website's content. Be sure to use descriptive anchor text and link to the most important pages on your site.

5. Prioritize your most important pages

While it's important to make sure that all pages on your site are properly crawled and indexed, it's especially important to prioritize your most important pages. These might include pages with high traffic or pages that generate revenue for your business.

With these tips in mind, you can help ensure that search engines properly crawl and index your website, leading to improved visibility and increased traffic.

Site Architecture and Internal Linking

The architecture of a website is how all the pages are organized and linked together. It's important to have a clear and understandable site architecture for both search engines and users. Search engines use a website's architecture to determine the relevance of a page to certain keywords and topics. A good architecture can help Google crawl and index your site better.

Internal linking is also an important part of site architecture. Internal linking helps Google understand the importance of pages on a website. When one page links to another page on the same site with relevant anchor text, it helps tell Google what that linked page is about. This can help that page rank better for its targeted keywords.

Best practices for Site Architecture

A clear site architecture creates a good user experience and helps Google crawl and index your site. Here are some best practices for site architecture:

  • Use a logical hierarchy: A well-defined hierarchy helps users and search engines understand the importance of each page on the site. Pages closest to the homepage will generally be the most important.
  • Keep your site structure shallow: A shallow hierarchy (few clicks to get to any page) is generally better for both usability and SEO.
  • Use descriptive URLs: Descriptive URLs can help a user and search engine better understand the content of a page.
  • Use breadcrumbs: Breadcrumbs help users understand where they are on the site and how to navigate back to other pages.
  • Use categories and tags: Categories and tags help create an organized site structure and make it easier for users to find related content.

Best practices for Internal Linking

Internal linking helps search engines understand the hierarchy and importance of pages on your site. Here are some best practices for internal linking:

  • Use descriptive anchor text: Using relevant and descriptive anchor text helps search engines understand what a linked page is about.
  • Link to relevant pages: Linking to relevant pages helps users and search engines understand the context of a page.
  • Use a reasonable number of links: Keep the number of internal links to a page reasonable to avoid overwhelming users and search engines. Too many internal links can make it harder for search engines to understand the context of a page.
  • Link from high- to low-priority pages: Pages that are more important should have more internal links pointing to them.

Tools for Site Architecture and Internal Linking

  • Screaming Frog: A tool that can crawl a website and display the website's architecture in an organized diagram.
  • Google Search Console: A free tool that shows how Google crawls and indexes your website, including the internal links.
  • Yoast SEO: A WordPress plugin that can help with internal linking by suggesting relevant pages to link to.

Having a well-organized site architecture and using internal linking best practices not only helps with SEO but also creates a better user experience. By organizing your site properly, users are more likely to find the information they need, and search engines can more easily crawl and index your website.

Website Speed and Performance

Website speed and performance is a crucial factor that impacts both user experience and search engine optimization. Research shows that a one-second delay in page load time can result in a 7% reduction in conversions and an 11% decrease in page views. Moreover, Google considers page speed as a ranking factor, and slower websites might get penalized in search results.

Page Speed Test

Before optimizing your website's speed and performance, it's essential to determine how fast it currently loads. Google provides a free tool called PageSpeed Insights that analyzes web page content and provides suggestions to improve performance. This tool will provide scores for both mobile and desktop devices.

Compressed Images

Images are usually the most substantial element on most web pages. Optimizing their size and format can significantly improve website speed. You can compress images without losing quality using tools such as TinyPNG. Another option is to use responsive images that automatically change size depending on the user's screen. Finally, it's essential to add alt tags to images to improve accessibility and SEO.

Minify CSS, JS, and HTML

Minification is a technique that removes unnecessary characters and spaces from code. Minifying CSS, JS, and HTML files can significantly reduce their size and improve website speed. There are online tools such as MinifyCode that can help you minify your files quickly. Additionally, you can reduce requests by combining multiple CSS and JS files into one.

Choose the Right Hosting

The hosting provider you choose can impact the speed and performance of your website. Shared hosting plans can be affordable, but they can also be slow since multiple websites share the same resources. On the other hand, dedicated hosting plans can be expensive but offer more resources and better speed. Cloud hosting, which spreads websites across multiple servers, can also be a good option to improve speed and uptime.

Implement Caching

Caching is a technique that stores data in a user's browser or device, reducing the amount of data that needs to be downloaded on subsequent visits. There are different types of caching, including browser caching, server-side caching, and Content Delivery Network (CDN) caching. Enabling caching can significantly improve website speed.

In conclusion, website speed and performance are critical factors that can impact user experience and search engine rankings. Optimizing your website speed requires optimizing images, minifying code, choosing the right hosting, and implementing caching. Using tools such as PageSpeed Insights to evaluate performance can guide your optimization efforts.

On-page Optimization

On-page optimization refers to the practice of optimizing individual web pages in order to rank higher and earn more relevant traffic in search engines. The goal of on-page optimization is to align a website's content and structure with search engine algorithms, making it easier for search engine bots to crawl and index the site.

Some of the key factors that influence on-page optimization include:

1. Content Quality

Quality content is the backbone of any successful SEO campaign. Search engines prioritize content that is useful, informative and engaging. Your content should be well-written, informative, and structured in a way that makes it easy for search engines to understand the purpose of the page.

2. Title tags and Meta descriptions

Title tags and meta descriptions are HTML elements that provide information about a webpage and its content to search engines. They appear in search engine results, so having relevant, keyword-rich titles and descriptions can improve click-through rates and help search engines understand the content of your page.

3. Header tags and on-page factors

Header tags (H1, H2, H3) help break up a page into sections and indicate the page's hierarchy. They also help search engines understand the structure of your page and what topics are covered. On-page factors also include keyword usage, image optimization, and internal linking.

4. Page speed and usability

Search engines prioritize websites that offer a great user experience, which includes fast load times and easy navigation. Improving page speed and usability can also improve bounce rates and user engagement.

5. Mobile optimization

With mobile devices accounting for the majority of internet traffic, it's important to ensure that your website is optimized for mobile devices. This involves using responsive design and optimizing content for smaller screens.

On-page optimization is a crucial component of any SEO strategy. By implementing the best practices outlined above, website owners can increase their visibility and improve their chances of ranking higher in search engine results. For more information about on-page optimization, check out Moz's Beginner's Guide to SEO.

Mobile Optimization

With the majority of web traffic coming from mobile devices, optimizing your website for mobile users is essential. Slow loading times, poor user experience, and non-mobile-friendly designs can lead to high bounce rates and decreased engagement. Here are some tips for mobile optimization:

  1. Responsive Design: Your website should have a responsive design, which means it should adjust to fit any screen size. This ensures that your content is easy to read and navigate on mobile devices.

  2. Mobile-Friendly Content: Mobile users tend to consume content differently than desktop users. Keep your content concise and to the point, with easy-to-read font sizes and clear headings.

  3. Optimize Images: Large images can slow down your website, leading to frustrated mobile users. Optimize your images by compressing them for faster loading times.

  4. Improve Website Speed: Mobile users expect fast loading times, so optimizing your website speed is crucial. Reduce the file size of scripts, compress images, and use a content delivery network (CDN) to deliver content faster.

  5. Implement AMP: Google's Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP) framework can improve your mobile website speed and search engine rankings. AMP allows for faster loading times and a streamlined mobile experience.

  6. Test Your Website: Use Google's Mobile-Friendly Test to ensure your website is optimized for mobile devices. Address any issues that are uncovered in the test.

By implementing these mobile optimization tips, you can provide a better user experience for mobile users and increase engagement on your website. With more and more people accessing the internet from their mobile devices, mobile optimization is essential for the success of your website.

Related Resources:

Schema Markup

Schema Markup is a type of microdata that allows search engines to better understand the content on a website. It provides context for the content, making it easier for search engines to crawl and index pages, and ultimately improving the visibility and ranking of the website.

According to a study by Searchmetrics, pages with Schema Markup rank an average of four positions higher in search results than pages without Schema Markup. This underscores the importance of this SEO strategy.

Schema Markup can be used to provide additional information about a website's content, such as events, products, and reviews. For example, a restaurant website can use Schema Markup to provide information about its location, hours of operation, menu, and customer reviews. This makes it easier for search engines to display this information in the search results, making it more accessible to potential customers.

Implementation of Schema Markup is achieved through the use of structured data formats, such as JSON-LD, Microdata, and RDFa. The Markup is added to the HTML code of a website and can be done by hand or with the use of plugins or extensions.

The most common Schema Markup types include:

  • LocalBusiness
  • Product
  • Recipe
  • Event
  • Review

When implementing Schema Markup, make sure to follow the guidelines set forth by Google to ensure proper implementation and prevent penalties. Google offers a Structured Data Testing Tool to verify that the Markup is implemented correctly.

In conclusion, Schema Markup is an essential SEO technique that can improve a website's visibility and ranking in search results. Its implementation can provide a competitive edge and make it easier for search engines to understand a website's content. By utilizing Schema Markup, businesses can take advantage of the significant benefits it offers and improve their online visibility.

XML Sitemaps and Robots.txt

When it comes to crawling and indexing, having an XML sitemap and robots.txt file in place is essential. These files work together to ensure that search engine bots can quickly and easily crawl your site, while also preventing crawlers from wasting time and resources on pages that don't matter.

An XML sitemap is a file that lists all the pages on your website, along with metadata about each page (such as when it was last updated). This allows search engine bots to quickly index your site, without having to crawl every individual page. In fact, having an XML sitemap can lead to faster indexing and better rankings: a recent study found that sites with sitemaps saw a 36% improvement in their crawl coverage.

Robots.txt, on the other hand, is a file that tells search engine bots which pages on your site are off-limits. By including URLs in this file, you can prevent bots from spending time crawling pages that are duplicates or that don't contribute to your overall SEO efforts. For example, you might use robots.txt to block search engines from indexing your checkout or confirmation pages, which typically don't contain much content.

When creating an XML sitemap or robots.txt file, it's important to follow best practices to ensure that search engine bots can easily read and interpret the files. This can include:

  • Using plain text format for your files (rather than PDF or Excel, for example).
  • Using proper syntax and formatting (such as XML tags for sitemaps).
  • Checking for errors using tools like Google's Search Console.
  • Submitting your sitemap to search engines using their webmaster tools.

By following these best practices, you can help ensure that your XML sitemap and robots.txt file work together seamlessly to improve your site's crawlability and overall SEO performance.

Useful resources:


Canonicalization is the process of standardizing the URL for a webpage to avoid duplicate content issues and improve the website's overall search engine optimization (SEO) performance. Duplicate content can occur when a website has multiple versions of the same page, each with a different URL. This can lead to search engines ranking the pages separately, diluting the website's ranking potential and causing a loss of traffic.

For example, a webpage could be accessed through multiple URLs, such as:


In this case, search engines may see the same content on three different URLs and may not know which to index, resulting in lower rankings.

To avoid this issue, we can use a canonical tag in the HTML header of the page to indicate the preferred URL for that page. This tells search engines which URL should be considered the primary version of the page, and which other URLs should be considered duplicates.

Using a canonical tag helps to consolidate the ranking power of your website into a single page and prevents any loss of traffic due to access through multiple URLs. It also simplifies your website's structure and makes it easier for search engines to crawl and index.

Several case studies have shown that implementing canonical tags can lead to an increase in search engine visibility. In fact, according to a study by Moz, adding canonical tags to the pages of a website increased the website's pages indexed by an average of 29%.

When implementing canonicalization, be sure to:

  • Choose a canonical URL that best represents the content of the page.
  • Use the rel=canonical tag in the HTML header of the page.
  • Avoid using a no-index tag on the canonical URL, as this will prevent the page from being indexed.
  • Check for errors in your canonical tags using tools like Google Search Console or Screaming Frog SEO Spider.

For more information on the benefits of canonicalization for SEO, check out this resource by Ahrefs.


HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is a secure version of HTTP that encrypts communication between a website and its users. This encryption is done using SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) or its successor TLS (Transport Layer Security). HTTPS ensures that any sensitive information transmitted between the website and its users, such as login credentials or payment details, is protected from interception and hacking.

Having HTTPS is important for many reasons:

1. Improved Security

HTTPS helps to protect against man-in-the-middle attacks, where an attacker intercepts communication between a website and its users to steal or manipulate sensitive information. Through encryption and verification, HTTPS ensures that communication between the website and its users is secure.

2. Better Search Engine Ranking

Google announced in 2014 that HTTPS is a ranking signal, meaning that websites with HTTPS are more likely to rank higher in search results than those without. Furthermore, Google Chrome now displays a "Not Secure" warning on any website that does not have HTTPS, potentially reducing user trust and increasing bounce rates.

3. Enhanced User Trust

Having HTTPS can increase user trust and confidence in a website, particularly when it comes to sensitive information such as financial transactions. Users are more likely to feel comfortable providing personal information when they see the padlock icon or the green address bar that indicates a secure connection.

To implement HTTPS on your website, you will need an SSL/TLS certificate. This certificate is issued by a trusted third-party and verifies the identity of your website. There are several types of SSL certificates available, including Domain Validated (DV), Organization Validated (OV), and Extended Validation (EV), each providing different levels of verification and security.

Once you have obtained an SSL certificate, you will need to install it on your web server and configure your website to use HTTPS. This process may vary depending on your web hosting provider and website platform, but many offer options to install SSL certificates and enable HTTPS directly from their dashboard.

Overall, implementing HTTPS on your website is a crucial step towards improving security, building user trust, and improving search engine ranking. With the many benefits it provides, it's worth investing the time and resources to ensure your website is secure and reliable for your users.

For more information on implementing HTTPS and SSL, check out the Google Developers guide or consult with your web hosting provider.

Server and Hosting Issues

The server and hosting where your website is located can greatly impact its performance and ultimately, its SEO rankings. Here are some common server and hosting issues that can affect your website's SEO:

1. Downtime and Uptime

Server downtime is a major issue that can cause your website to lose search engine rankings. If your website is frequently down, it can signal to search engines that your website is unreliable and not worth ranking. In fact, research shows that websites that experience downtime regularly are likely to suffer a decrease in their search engine rankings.

To avoid this issue, it's important to choose a reliable hosting provider with a good uptime score. Websites that experience too much downtime are most likely hosted on slow, congested servers which can impact site load times, traffic and ultimately SEO rankings.

2. Site Load Speed

Site load speed is a significant factor when it comes to website SEO. A website that loads slowly is likely to rank low on search engine results pages. Studies have shown that a website that loads slower than three seconds can lead to a higher bounce rate and poorer search engine rankings.

To ensure your website loads quickly, it's important to choose a hosting provider with a fast server and to optimize your website's speed by compressing content, minimizing CSS and JavaScript files, optimizing images and using a content delivery network (CDN).

3. Security Issues

Website security is important for several reasons, including SEO. Search engines typically rank secure websites higher than insecure ones. In fact, Google now displays "Not Secure" warnings for websites that aren't using HTTPS with SSL certificates.

To secure your website, it's essential to choose a hosting provider that provides secure hosting. Additionally, regularly updating your website software, implementing strong passwords, and using security plugins are all important for securing your website.

4. IP Address

The IP address used by your website can have an impact on its SEO rankings. Shared hosting can sometimes lead to your website being hosted on the same IP address as low-quality websites, potentially causing your website's rankings to suffer.

To avoid this issue, it's important to choose a hosting provider with a good reputation and strong security measures. Additionally, it may be beneficial to consider using a dedicated IP address, which can help to boost your website's security and improve its rankings.

In conclusion, server and hosting issues are a critical factor in the SEO rankings of your website. To optimize your website for SEO performance, it's important to choose a reliable hosting provider with excellent uptime and speed. Additionally, ensuring your website is secure, optimizing its speed, and using a dedicated IP address are all factors that can contribute to better SEO rankings.

In conclusion, Technical SEO is an essential tool if you aim to improve your website’s organic traffic and visibility on search engines. As laid out in this article, there are several factors that search engines consider when ranking websites. These factors range from crawling, indexing, and website speed to schema markup, XML sitemaps, and server and hosting issues.

To crawl and index your website effectively, you need to prioritize website architecture and internal linking. Aim to create a website structure that makes it easy for search engines to crawl your content. Additionally, ensure that your website speed is optimal, as this can impact your rankings significantly.

On-page optimization is also a significant factor as it helps search engines understand your website content. Ensure that your content is high-quality, keyword-rich, and informative. Mobile optimization is an increasingly crucial aspect of technical SEO, considering that mobile searches constitute a significant portion of all online searches.

Schema markup can help you increase the visibility of your website on search engines. It helps to provide relevant information about your website content, making it easier for search engines to understand and rank your content.

To ensure that search engines can crawl your website effectively, create an XML sitemap, and ensure that your robots.txt file is configured properly. Proper canonicalization strategies can also help to prevent duplicate content issues and improve your website’s rankings.

Finally, HTTPS and SSL are crucial in protecting your website visitors’ data and informing search engines that your website is secure. Ensure that your website is hosted on a secure server, and work with your hosting provider to fix any hosting and server issues that may impact your website’s rankings.

In conclusion, optimizing for Technical SEO is an ongoing process. Keep up with search engine algorithm updates, evaluate your website frequently, and make the necessary changes to your website structure, content, and server or hosting issues. By making Technical SEO a priority, you can boost your website’s rankings, drive more organic traffic, and achieve your business goals.

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